Spiegel symbol

spiegel symbol

Das Traumsymbol Spiegel deuten. Spiegel als Symbol für Selbsterkenntnis. Das eigene Spiegelbild im Traum; Andere Personen als eigenes Spiegelbild. Ein Spiegel (von lat. speculum „Spiegel, Abbild“ zu lat. specere „sehen“) ist eine reflektierende .. Der Spiegel, der die Göttin reflektiert und sie erweckt, ist damit das Symbol der Welt, des Raums, in dem die Erscheinung entsteht. Der Spiegel . Von dem Symbol wird im folgenden so viel gesprochen werden, daß ich fast selbst annehmen könnte, meine Bemühungen in diesem Aufsatz gälten nur der.

Spiegel Symbol Video

Volkswagen Golf 4 R32 3,2 V6 2003 Tuning at Essen Motorshow - Exterior Walkaround

Die Rauheit der Spiegelfläche muss dafür kleiner sein als etwa die halbe Wellenlänge des Lichts. Die Transparenz und Absorption halbtransparent, nicht-transparent, wellenlängenabhängige Transparenz oder Absorption des Spiegels hat Einfluss auf Helligkeit und Farbe des Spiegelbildes.

Tripelspiegel liefern seitenverkehrte, auf dem Kopf stehende Bilder. Das Spiegelbild in einem ebenen Spiegel gibt ein wahrheitsgetreues bzw.

Der Spiegel vertauscht allerdings die ihm zugewandte mit der ihm abgewandten Seite. Wenn sich der Beobachter in die Lage seines Spiegelbildes versetzen möchte, so erscheint es ihm, als ob rechts und links vertauscht wären — alles erscheint im Wortsinne spiegelbildlich.

Es liegt also nahe, die falsche Händigkeit als eine Vertauschung von rechts und links zu interpretieren, was dann zum scheinbaren Widerspruch führt, dass im Gegensatz dazu oben und unten nicht vertauscht wird.

Um in diesem Bild zu bleiben, kann man formulieren, dass der Spiegel nicht links und rechts, sondern vorn und hinten vertauscht.

Fällt der Blick über zwei Spiegel auf das Objekt, erscheint es wieder mit richtiger Händigkeit. Dieses Phänomen machen sich Periskope und Spiegelreflexkameras zunutze.

Mittels Spiegeln kann man nur durch Verwendung von einer geraden Anzahl Spiegeln im Lichtweg sich selbst so betrachten, wie man von anderen gesehen wird.

Wenn die Spiegelfläche nicht eben ist, ist das Spiegelbild verzeichnet. Bei konvexen Spiegeln gewölbt wie eine Kugeloberfläche erscheint das virtuelle Spiegelbild immer verkleinert.

Das Abbild entsteht in der entfernungs- und krümmungsabhängigen Fokusebene. Mit welligen Spiegeln können Zerrbilder erzeugt werden, wie man sie in Kuriositäten - oder Lachkabinetten findet.

Spiegel können nach ihrem Aufbau unterteilt werden. Zum einen gibt es Spiegel für alltägliche Zwecke, bei denen ein durchsichtiges Trägermaterial von hinten beschichtet wird.

Heute ist eine mit Aluminium beschichtete Glasplatte am häufigsten zu finden, aber auch Silber wird eingesetzt. Die Metallschicht ist hinten durch eine Lackschicht vor Oxidation geschützt.

Früher verwendete man Quecksilber und Zinn. Ein Schutzlack war hier nicht notwendig, weil das Amalgam chemisch sehr stabil ist. Im Gegensatz dazu ist der optische Spiegel ein Oberflächenspiegel: Die spiegelnde Fläche ist vorne auf einem Trägermaterial aufgebracht.

Das hat den Vorteil, dass die Grenzflächen der Glasschicht, welche zweifach vom Strahl durchquert werden, entfallen und somit nicht in der Lage sind, Schatten- und Mehrfachbilder zu bewirken.

Nachteilig ist die Anfälligkeit der offenen Oberfläche für Korrosion und ihre mechanische Empfindlichkeit bezüglich Zerkratzen, insbesondere zur Reinigung.

Teilweise wird als Korrosionsschutz noch eine Siliciumdioxidschicht aufgedampft. Dadurch können weitere Eigenschaften, wie z. Bruchsicherheit oder Abführung von Verlustenergie, optimiert werden.

Des Weiteren können Oberflächenspiegel auch aus dem vollen spiegelnden Material hergestellt werden. Hier wird nur die Oberfläche auf Spiegelglanz poliert , ohne eine weitere Beschichtung.

Ein solcher Spiegel benötigt somit keine reflektierende Schicht, sondern nutzt das Grenzschichtverhalten des Materials, in dem sich das Licht bewegt.

Auf der anderen Seite der Grenzschicht ist typischerweise Luft zu finden. Bei diesem Konzept kann z. Kondensation, also Feuchtigkeit auf der Grenzfläche, die Funktion vorübergehend beeinträchtigen.

Die Ein- und Austrittsflächen dagegen sind nur bedingt kritisch. Die bekanntesten Spiegel sind die Garderoben- und Badezimmerspiegel im Haushalt.

Für sie wird meistens Floatglas verwendet, weil es besonders planparallel ist. Planspiegel erzeugen von einem Objekt kein reelles Bild wie beispielsweise eine Sammellinse.

Der Spiegel zeigt einen vor dem Spiegel stehenden Gegenstand so, als wenn er im gleichen Abstand hinter dem Spiegel stünde.

Dadurch ist der Gegenstand für den Betrachter scheinbar weiter entfernt, so dass er wegen der Perspektive kleiner erscheint.

Die eigentliche Abbildung erledigt hierbei aber nicht der Spiegel, sondern die Augenlinse des Betrachters, der Spiegel kehrt lediglich die Lichtstrahlverläufe um.

Ihre Wirkungsweise entspricht der einer konkaven Linse , bildet also das Licht von einem weiten Bild auf ein deutlich kleineres Sichtfeld ab. Rasier- und Kosmetikspiegel sind konkave Hohlspiegel.

Konkave Spiegel oder Hohlspiegel werden auch für Spiegelteleskope verwendet. Sie erzeugen von weit entfernten Objekten in ihrer Brennebene ein reelles Bild , ähnlich wie konvexe Linsen.

Gegenüber Linsenteleskopen besteht aber der Vorteil, dass keinerlei chromatische Aberration auftritt. Die Formgenauigkeit eines Spiegels muss etwa viermal höher sein, als dies bei Linsenteleskopen der Fall ist vgl.

Sollen dagegen parallel eintreffende Strahlen von der gesamten Spiegeloberfläche in einem Punkt fokussiert werden, so muss prinzipiell ein Parabolspiegel verwendet werden.

Um in Teleskopen trotzdem einen deutlich günstiger herzustellenden sphärischen Spiegel verwenden zu können, wählt man ein ausreichend langes Öffnungsverhältnis , so dass der Fehler durch sphärische Aberration kleiner als andere Fehler des Systems wird, oder man verwendet zusätzliche Korrekturlinsen.

Bei Teleskopen im gehobenen Amateurbereich ist beispielsweise die Korrekturplatte nach Bernhard Schmidt siehe Schmidt-Teleskop häufig anzutreffen.

Lichtquellen mit Höchstdruck- Quecksilberdampflampen für die Fotolithografie. Parabolspiegel werden auch in solarthermischen Kraftwerken verwendet, um das Sonnenlicht auf den Dampferzeuger zu konzentrieren und so möglichst hohe Temperaturen zu erreichen.

Das Licht der Wendel und des Abbildes werden mit einer davor befindlichen asphärischen Linse parallel gerichtet.

Die Zauberkunst verwendet bei optischen Tricks auf der Bühne Spiegel, um Gegenstände scheinbar verschwinden zu lassen Bild unten.

Zerrspiegel sind verformte Spiegel. Därför tycker man ofta att spegelbildens vänstra arm verkar vara dess högra. När man träffar en människa ansikte mot ansikte är hennes position "spegelvänd", högerhanden pekar mot hennes vänsterhand och detta är förvillandet att man betraktar spegelbilden som en annan person.

Det anses även vara ett av de främsta redskapen vid trolleri -föreställningar. I och utanför hissar etc används speglar i inredningen dels för att skapa en illusion av att rummet är större, dels för att besökare ska "glömma bort tiden" genom att studera sitt utseende medan de väntar.

I periskop används speglar för att erbjuda sikt förbi hinder. Om en spegel inte är slät bildas en förvrängd bild av objektet framför spegeln.

Konkava speglar används bl. Under the terms of the agreement, Snapchat was not fined, but the app service agreed to have its claims and policies monitored by an independent party for a period of 20 years.

The FTC concluded that Snapchat was prohibited from "misrepresenting the extent to which it maintains the privacy, security, or confidentiality of users' information.

Following the agreement, Snapchat updated its privacy page to state that the company "can't guarantee that messages will be deleted within a specific timeframe.

In September , an year-old was using a Snapchat feature called "Lens" to record the speed she was driving her Mercedes C when she crashed into a Mitsubishi Outlander in Hampton, Georgia.

The driver of the Outlander spent five weeks in intensive care while he was treated for severe traumatic brain injury. In April , the Outlander driver sued both Snapchat and the user of Snapchat, alleging that Snapchat knew its application was being used in unlawful speed contests, yet did nothing to prevent such use so is negligent.

In , Snapchat was sued by Canadian company for infringement on its geofiltering patent. They were seeking "monetary compensation and an order that would prohibit California-based Snapchat from infringing on its patent in the future.

The June release of "Snap Map", a feature that broadcasts the user's location on a map, was met with concerns over privacy and safety.

The feature, though an opt-in, delivers a message asking if the user would like to show their position on the map, but reportedly doesn't explain the ramifications of doing so, including that the app updates the user's position on the map each time the app is opened and not just when actively capturing snaps, potentially allowing for stalkers.

The map can be zoomed in to feature detailed geographical information, such as street addresses. Although there has been an increase in advertising on Snapchat, Snapchat has stated that they do not plan on running ads on Snap Map stories.

In November , Snapchat announced a redesign, [] which proved controversial with many of its followers. CNBC 's Ingrid Angulo listed some of the reasons why many disliked the update, citing that sending a snap and re-watching stories was more complicated, stories and incoming snaps were now listed on the same page, and that the Discover page now included featured and sponsored content.

In February , Kylie Jenner sent a tweet criticizing the redesign of the Snapchat app. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 November Photo sharing Instant messaging Video chat Multimedia.

For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of Snapchat. This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia.

See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved April 1, Retrieved May 31, Retrieved 1 October Retrieved April 27, Retrieved April 11, No, really, we don't know".

Retrieved April 10, Retrieved March 27, The third sued them". Retrieved May 9, Retrieved December 22, Retrieved August 9, Retrieved May 4, Retrieved April 29, Retrieved May 10, Retrieved September 26, Spectacles are available online".

Retrieved December 19, Send Photos Set to Self-Destruct". Retrieved September 15, You can now pay Snapchat to replay snaps! Retrieved July 21, Retrieved April 28, Retrieved July 7, The Globe and Mail.

Retrieved March 24, Retrieved December 10, Retrieved March 12, Retrieved December 13, Retrieved April 18, Snapchat's most popular feature isn't snaps anymore".

Archived from the original on May 22, Retrieved May 16, Claire October 21, Claire October 22, Snapchat is about to get a major redesign". Retrieved May 23, Retrieved June 23, Retrieved September 22, The Wall Street Journal.

Retrieved June 12, How Snapchat is selling itself to marketers — Digiday". Financial Cryptography and Data Security Conference.

Retrieved August 6, Retrieved June 20, Retrieved April 30, Retrieved June 13, Retrieved April 13, Retrieved March 17, Candy brand Sour Patch Kids have a sweet year on Snapchat".

Retrieved March 18,

For other uses, see Swastika disambiguation. Die Zauberkunst verwendet bei optischen Tricks auf der Bühne Spiegel, um Gegenstände scheinbar verschwinden zu lassen Bild unten. Goa Lawah Hindu temple entrance in BaliIndonesia. A good example of this is in Session 7when Victoria Terpsichore offered him a wad casino berlin staaken cash, and he Beste Spielothek in Lorenzen finden took a single note while saying the sommerquiz was for her husband. Germans have long sought to insulate themselves from the problems free casino roulette download the rest of the world. Retrieved April frauen championsleague, Paul Michel Find more information about: Dünne Goldschichten reflektieren vorrangig im Infrarot, sind jedoch im sichtbaren Licht bläulich transparent. Retrieved 1 July Then came 1 - 4 December - Mobil6000 massive scandal in mid-April when the Echo Www.bet-at-home.com gutschein, Germany's answer to the Grammy, was awarded to rappers Kollegah and Farid Bang, whose songs contain anti-Semitic lyrics. November um Für gute Abbildungseigenschaften muss ein Spiegel z. Dieses Phänomen machen sich Periskope und Spiegelreflexkameras zunutze. Ein Berg bricht auseinander. Aus dem alten Ägypten sind Spiegel aus polierten Bronze - und Kupferplatten bekannt. Um in Teleskopen trotzdem einen deutlich günstiger herzustellenden sphärischen Spiegel verwenden zu können, wählt man ein ausreichend langes Öffnungsverhältnis free casino games for pc, so dass der Fehler durch sphärische Aberration kleiner als andere Fehler des Systems wird, oder man verwendet zusätzliche Korrekturlinsen. In Pompeji wurde ein Beste Spielothek in Kleinbucha finden Silberspiegel mit solch einem Griff 888 casino app echtgeld. Ssv ulm fußball der chinesischen Tradition sah man Beste Spielothek in Drazja vas finden Spiegel als Verbanner des Bösen, denn wenn das Böse in den Spiegel sieht und seine Missbildung sieht, überkommt es der Schreck. Weiter aufzuführen sind genrespezifische Spiegelmotive. Politik - Internationale Politik - Region: Der deutsche Stummfilm erzählt die Geschichte des Studenten Balduin, der sein Spiegelbild verkauft, um mit diesem Geld seinen gesellschaftlichen Aufstieg zu garantieren. Es gibt einfache Glasspiegel und wertvollere Kristallspiegel. Unluckyme casino Ägypten stammen auch die ersten Behältnisse zur Aufbewahrung von Spiegeln. Wm finale deutschland argentinien der Spiegel allerdings Rechts und Links vertauscht ist eine falsche Annahme, denn der Spiegel reflektiert Rechts und Links genau dort, wo Rechts und Links sind, demnach ist psg online Spiegel ein Garant für die Wahrheit. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am In vielen Kulturen, so auch in brämer boxen mitteleuropäischen Sagenwelt, gehören Spiegel und übersinnliche Erkenntnis Wahrsagen zusammen. Der Spiegel, der die Göttin reflektiert und sie erweckt, ist damit das Symbol der Welt, des Raums, in dem die Erscheinung entsteht. Für Literaturwissenschaftlerin Helena Frenschkowski weist die übertriebene Faszination des gespiegelten Ichs auf das unstabile Motogp sonntag des Subjekts hin, das die Vergewisserung seiner Existenz durch das Abbild unverzichtbar benötigt.

Spiegel symbol -

Du kommentierst mit Deinem Twitter-Konto. Dagegen kann ich einiges von jenen Formen des Es erzählen, die bisher wenig besprochen worden sind. Dadurch ist der Gegenstand für den Betrachter scheinbar weiter entfernt, so dass er wegen der Perspektive kleiner erscheint. Die bekanntesten Spiegel sind die Garderoben- und Badezimmerspiegel im Haushalt. Trump und die Russlandaffäre: Die erste schriftliche Überlieferung metallischer Spiegel in der Bibel findet sich in Exodus 38,8: Die Homepage wurde aktualisiert. Von der Antike bis in die frühe Neuzeit wurde mit Hilfe von Spiegelwahrsagung Katoptromantie betrieben. Kunst - Fotografie und Film. Dass der Spiegel allerdings Rechts und Links vertauscht ist eine falsche Annahme, denn der Spiegel reflektiert Rechts und Links genau dort, wo Rechts und Links sind, demnach ist der Spiegel ein Garant für die Wahrheit. Klappspiegel waren auch beliebt. Kleinkinder müssen für diese Fähigkeit erst elementare Entwicklungsstufen durchlaufen, während die meisten Tiere gar nicht in der Lage sind, die Bildinformation eines Spiegels auf sich selbst zu beziehen. Der Spiegel liegt aber hinter der Maske und zeigt sein wahres Gesicht. In antiken Kulturen stand der Spiegel als Abbild der Seele einer Person, in dem — je nach mythologischer Vorstellung — die Seele auch eingefangen und festgehalten werden konnte. Die medizinische Diagnostik verwendet Spiegel beispielsweise in Endoskopen daher der Begriff Magenspiegelung und zur Inspektion unzugänglicher Hohlräume. Ein solcher Spiegel benötigt somit keine reflektierende Schicht, sondern nutzt das Grenzschichtverhalten des Materials, in dem sich das Licht bewegt. Spiegel in Lasern und zu deren Strahlführung und -fokussierung haben besonders hohe Leistungsdichten zu ertragen. Das hat den Vorteil, dass die Grenzflächen der Glasschicht, welche zweifach vom Strahl durchquert werden, entfallen und somit nicht in der Lage sind, Schatten- und Mehrfachbilder zu bewirken. Geht man bei der Betrachtung des Bildes von der Neunzahl aus, so wird aus dem genrehaften Gruppenporträt ein Schicksalsgemälde des Männlichen, eine Darstellung der Entstehung, des Handelns und des Sterbens des Mannes. Doch abhängig davon, wie man mit dem geträumten Spiegel interagiert, was bzw.

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You may send this item to up to five recipients. Throughout the series, there are some clues given about his past that it can be presumed that he was raised in one of the slums of Mars before becoming a thug, a thief, and then finally a criminal affiliated with the Red Dragon Crime Syndicate where Mao Yenrai , head of the organization, takes him under his wing.

The criminal organization becomes kind of like a family for Spike, and, thanks to his skills, he manages to become, in a short time, one of the top men, even being considered by many in the Red Dragon to someday be the leader.

Because of his recklessness, he loses his right eye in an unknown accident, which occurred in a mission on behalf of the Red Dragon, after which he was implanted an artificial eye.

Simultaneously, after joining the Red Dragon, Spike meets a woman named Julia during a pool game; it's implied he fell in love with her at first sight.

He also encounters Vicious , and soon, both become candidates for possible successors for Mao as the leader of the organization.

While Vicious is ambitious, selfish, ruthless, and willing to do anything to get the leadership role, Spike instead finds no interest in the opportunity.

The difference of opinion between the two gives rise to a great mutual hatred as well as a strong rivalry; however, this is not the only reason.

They have a shared history and are shown to have fought and worked together in the past, possibly at one point being good friends.

In Spike's flashbacks, he is shown fighting alongside Vicious. At about this time, Spike gets involved in a shooting probably not with the police, but the assassins of Vicious.

He survives and is rescued and healed by Julia. It is unclear exactly what links Vicious and Julia, though it seems the most likely that Julia was somehow subdued by Vicious and obliged to obey him, and some elements reveal she might've had a romantic relationship with him, further explaining Vicious' anger at Spike for engaging in an affair with Julia and sending assassins after him.

Having heard of the new bond, Vicious offers Julia to restore her freedom in exchange for the life of Spike, adding that if she did not kill him, they would both end up dead.

Spike simultaneously staged his fake death and offered Julia to leave the Red Dragon and run away with him to start a new life.

They were supposed to meet in a cemetery on a rainy day. Julia, however, not having the strength to kill the man she loved, decided to go into hiding to protect both him and herself, so at least one of them could be saved.

She did not go to the cemetery, leaving Spike waiting in the rain and coming to believe he had been betrayed. Spike finally decided to leave, and so, painfully putting an end to their relationship.

A few years later in [2] , in circumstances that are not told, he met Jet Black who becomes his partner and close friend.

They embarked on the ship known as the Bebop and quickly became the most feared bounty hunters of the Solar System. Despite the passing years, Spike continues, every time he gets an opportunity, to search for his beloved Julia.

In Session 2 , Stray Dog Strut , Jet and Spike, while hunting a kidnapper of animals, meet Ein, a dog with an unexpected human intelligence, who they decide to adopt as a pet.

Here, the two bounty hunters meet Faye Valentine, who, after a series of events between this session and Session 4 , Gateway Shuffle , becomes the self-invited third member of the crew of the Bebop.

Initially, both men don't agree on having a woman on board, especially an opportunist like Faye. Over time, however, they become an attached and functional team.

In Session 5 , Ballad of Fallen Angels , when Faye decides to try to catch Mao Yenrai alone, unaware that he has already been killed by Vicious, she falls into a trap of the Red Dragon, only to be used by Vicious to attract Spike.

Arriving at the appointment in exchange for the life of Faye, Spike faces before the assassins of his rival and Vicious himself.

Vicious is more propitious and manages to push Spike through a glass wall, but Spike manages to throw a grenade towards Vicious. Spike falls to the ground, but survived with the help of his fellow travelers who brought him back to the Bebop and medicated his wounds.

Following unclear circumstances, Vicious survives the explosion caused by Spike's bomb. In Session 9, Jamming with Edward , the eccentric Ed joins the trio.

Spike resumes his life as a bounty hunter until Sessions 12 and 13 , Jupiter Jazz , when Faye flees to Callisto because of her fears of her feelings towards her companions.

In an effort to find her, Spike picks up a message perceived to regard a woman named Julia, but the term "Julia" turns out to be just the code name of a purchase transaction of a consignment of drugs Red Eye by Vicious on behalf of the Red Dragon.

After a new clash with his rival, in which he manages to escape again, Spike returns to the Bebop being welcomed with open arms by Jet, despite the dispute caused by the way he acted to chase after Julia.

After a series of adventures, in Session 24 , Hard Luck Woman , the crew is dismembered because Ed, after briefly meeting her father again, leaves with Ein.

Faye, adding to the separation, recovered by her amnesia and taken by the anxiety of discovering her parents aren't alive, leaves the ship again.

In Sessions 25 and 26 , The Real Folk Blues , depressed, though not wanting to admit it, Jet and Spike go to a bar to drown their sorrows in booze, unaware that in the meantime the men of the Red Dragon Crime Syndicate are chasing Spike.

The assassins of the organization find Spike and Jet at the bar in which they undertake a firefight and Jet is wounded in the left leg by a bullet.

Spike and Jet return to the Bebop with the aid of Shin covering their escape. Spike, after finding out that the elders of the Red Dragon stopped Vicious's coup and ordered their henchmen to eliminate any former member of the organization, contacts Faye and asks her to return to the Bebop.

Faye returns and tells him, albeit hesitantly, she met Julia who has given her a task to deliver a message to Spike that she's waiting for him unbeknownst to Faye at the cemetery from years passed.

Spike immediately leaves the Bebop and travels to the cemetery whereupon he and Julia are reunited. They are soon joined by the assassins of the Red Dragon who chase them up on the rooftops of the city.

In Armenia the swastika is called the " arevakhach " and "kerkhach" Armenian: Swastikas in Armenia were founded on petroglyphs from the copper age, predating the Bronze Age.

During the Bronze Age it was depicted on cauldrons , belts, medallions and other items. Swastikas can also be seen on early Medieval churches and fortresses, including the principal tower in Armenia's historical capital city of Ani.

Swastika shapes have been found on numerous artifacts from Iron Age Europe. Swastiska on the Snoldelev Rune Stone , Denmark. In Christianity, the swastika is used as a hooked version of the Christian Cross , the symbol of Christ's victory over death.

Some Christian churches built in the Romanesque and Gothic eras are decorated with swastikas, carrying over earlier Roman designs.

Swastikas are prominently displayed in a mosaic in the St. Sophia church of Kiev , Ukraine dating from the 12th century.

They also appear as a repeating ornamental motif on a tomb in the Basilica of St. A ceiling painted in in the church of St Laurent in Grenoble has many swastikas.

It can be visited today because the church became the archaeological museum of the city. A proposed direct link between it and a swastika floor mosaic in the Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens , which was built on top of a pagan site at Amiens , France in the 13th century, is considered unlikely.

The stole worn by a priest in the painting of the Seven Sacraments by Rogier van der Weyden presents the swastika form simply as one way of depicting the cross.

Swastikas also appear in art and architecture during the Renaissance and Baroque era. The fresco The School of Athens shows an ornament made out of swastikas, and the symbol can also be found on the facade of the Santa Maria della Salute , a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice.

In the Polish First Republic the symbol of the swastika was also popular with the nobility. According to chronicles, the Rus' prince Oleg , who in the 9th century attacked Constantinople , nailed his shield which had a large red swastika painted on it to the city's gates.

Boreyko, Borzym, and Radziechowski from Ruthenia, also had swastikas as their coat of arms. The family reached its greatness in the 14th and 15th centuries and its crest can be seen in many heraldry books produced at that time.

The swastika was also a heraldic symbol, for example on the Boreyko coat of arms , used by noblemen in Poland and Ukraine. In the 19th century the swastika was one of the Russian empire's symbols; it was even placed in coins as a background to the Russian eagle.

A swastika can be seen on stonework at Valle Crucis Abbey , near Llangollen. Because the outer lines point to the left instead of the swastika's right point ends, this is referred to as a sauwastika.

This pattern can be found in a Venetian palace that likely follows a Roman pattern, at Palazzo Roncale, Rovigo. A swastika composed of Hebrew letters as a mystical symbol from the Jewish Kabbalistic work "Parashat Eliezer".

Swastikas on the vestments of the effigy of Bishop William Edington d. The swastika can be found on Ashanti gold weights and among adinkra symbols in West Africa.

Carved fretwork forming a swastika in the window of a Lalibela rock-hewn church in Ethiopia. In the Western world, the symbol experienced a resurgence following the archaeological work in the late 19th century of Heinrich Schliemann , who discovered the symbol in the site of ancient Troy and associated it with the ancient migrations of Proto-Indo-Europeans , whose proto-language was not coincidentally termed "Proto-Indo-Germanic" by German language historians.

He connected it with similar shapes found on ancient pots in Germany, and theorized that the swastika was a "significant religious symbol of our remote ancestors", linking it to ancient Teutons , Greeks of the time of Homer and Indians of the Vedic era.

Schliemann's work soon became intertwined with the völkisch movements, which used the swastika as a symbol for the " Aryan race "—a concept that theorists such as Alfred Rosenberg equated with a Nordic master race originating in northern Europe.

The swastika remains a core symbol of Neo-Nazi groups. The Benedictine choir school at Lambach Abbey , Upper Austria, which Hitler attended for several months as a boy, had a swastika chiseled into the monastery portal and also the wall above the spring grotto in the courtyard by Their origin was the personal coat of arms of Abbot Theoderich Hagn of the monastery in Lambach, which bore a golden swastika with slanted points on a blue field.

In the s the Theosophical Society adopted a swastika as part of its seal, along with an Om , a hexagram or star of David , an Ankh and an Ouroboros.

The current seal also includes the text "There is no religion higher than truth. The Danish brewery company Carlsberg Group used the swastika as a logo [] from the 19th Century until the middle of the s when it was discontinued because of association with the Nazi Party in neighbouring Germany.

The swastika carved on elephants at the entrance gates of the company's headquarters in Copenhagen in can still be seen today.

In the fifties Heinrich Böll came across a van belonging to the company while he was staying in Ireland, leading to some awkward moments before he realized the company was older than Nazism and totally unrelated to it.

The chimney of the boiler-house of the laundry still stands, but the laundry has been redeveloped. In Finland the swastika "hakaristi", meaning hook-cross was often used in traditional folk art products, as a decoration or magical symbol on textiles and wood.

The swastika was also used by the Finnish Air Force until , and is still used on air force flags. The tursaansydän is used by scouts in some instances [] and a student organization.

The Finnish Air Force used the swastika as an emblem, introduced in The type of swastika adopted by the air-force was the symbol of luck for the Swedish count Eric von Rosen , who donated one of its earliest aircraft; he later became a prominent figure in the Swedish nazi-movement.

The swastika was also used by the women's paramilitary organization Lotta Svärd , which was banned in in accordance with the Moscow Armistice between Finland and the allied Soviet Union and Britain.

According to the protocol, the president shall wear the Grand Cross of the White Rose with collar on formal occasions. The original design of the collar, decorated with 9 swastikas, dates from , and was designed by the artist Akseli Gallen-Kallela.

The Grand Cross with the swastika collar has been awarded 41 times to foreign heads of state. To avoid misunderstandings, the swastika decorations were replaced by fir crosses at the decision of president Urho Kekkonen in after it became known that the President of France Charles De Gaulle was uncomfortable with the swastika collar.

Also a design by Gallen-Kallela from , the Cross of Liberty has a swastika pattern in its arms. The Cross of Liberty is depicted in the upper left corner of the standard of the President of Finland.

In December , a silver replica of the World War II period Finnish air defence's relief ring decorated with a swastika became available as a part of a charity campaign.

The original war time idea was that the public swap their precious metal rings for the State air defence's relief ring, made of iron. Earlier versions pointed counter-clockwise, while later versions pointed clock-wise and eliminated the white background.

As in Latvia, the symbol is a traditional Baltic ornament, [] [] found on relics dating from at least the 13th century. The traditional symbols of the Podhale Rifles include the edelweiss flower and the Mountain Cross, a swastika symbol popular in folk culture of the Polish mountainous regions.

The units of Podhale Rifles, both historical and modern, are notable for their high morale and distinctive uniforms.

The logo was replaced in , when Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. During the early s, the swastika was used as a symbol of electric power, perhaps because it resembled a waterwheel or turbine.

On maps of the period, the sites of hydroelectric power stations were marked with swastikas. Swastikas adorn its wrought iron gates.

The architects knew the swastika as a symbol of electricity and were probably not yet aware that it had been usurped by the German Nazi party and would soon become the foremost symbol of the German Reich.

The fact that these gates survived the cleanup after the German occupation of Norway during WW II is a testimony to the innocence and good faith of the power plant and its architects.

The swastika motif is found in some traditional Native American art and iconography. Historically, the design has been found in excavations of Mississippian -era sites in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, and on objects associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex S.

It is also widely used by a number of southwestern tribes, most notably the Navajo , and plains nations such as the Dakota.

Among various tribes, the swastika carries different meanings. The Passamaquoddy Native American tribe, now located in the state of Maine and in Canada , used an elongated swastika on their war canoes in the American colonial period as well as later.

Before the s, the symbol for the 45th Infantry Division of the United States Army was a red diamond with a yellow swastika, a tribute to the large Native American population in the southwestern United States.

A swastika shape is a symbol in the culture of the Kuna people of Kuna Yala , Panama. In Kuna tradition it symbolizes the octopus that created the world, its tentacles pointing to the four cardinal points.

In February the Kuna revolted vigorously against Panamanian suppression of their culture, and in they assumed autonomy.

The flag they adopted at that time is based on the swastika shape, and remains the official flag of Kuna Yala. A number of variations on the flag have been used over the years: The town of Swastika, Ontario, Canada is named after the symbol.

From to , the K-R-I-T automobile, manufactured in Detroit, Michigan, used a right-facing swastika as their trademark. Chief William Neptune of the Passamaquoddy , wearing a headdress and outfit adorned with swastikas.

Chilocco Indian Agricultural School basketball team in Fernie Swastikas women's hockey team, The Buffum tool company of Louisiana used the swastika as its trademark.

It went out of business in the s. The swastika was widely used in Europe at the start of the 20th century. It symbolized many things to the Europeans, with the most common symbolism being of good luck and auspiciousness.

This insignia was used on the party's flag, badge, and armband. In his work Mein Kampf , Adolf Hitler writes that: After long trials I also found a definite proportion between the size of the flag and the size of the white disk, as well as the shape and thickness of the swastika.

When Hitler created a flag for the Nazi Party, he sought to incorporate both the swastika and "those revered colors expressive of our homage to the glorious past and which once brought so much honor to the German nation.

In red, we see the social idea of the movement; in white, the nationalistic idea; in the swastika, the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man, and, by the same token, the victory of the idea of creative work.

The swastika was also understood as "the symbol of the creating, effecting life" das Symbol des schaffenden, wirkenden Lebens and as "race emblem of Germanism" Rasseabzeichen des Germanentums.

The use of the swastika was incorporated by Nazi theorists with their conjecture of Aryan cultural descent of the German people. The fascination of the German people with Aryanism arose when artifacts with swastikas on them were found near the Trojan city of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann.

The Nazi party was looking for the symbol that would preferably catch the attention of all of Germany and the swastika had that potential.

It became a symbol to unify the German people, to a conjecture about their ancestors, Aryan identity and nationalistic pride.

It also allowed the Nazi party to establish their anti-Semitic views, as well as terrify Jews and the enemies of the Nazi state.

The concept of racial hygiene was an ideology central to Nazism, though it is scientific racism. Thus, they saw fit to co-opt the sign as a symbol of the Aryan master race.

The use of the swastika as a symbol of the Aryan race dates back to writings of Emile Burnouf. Following many other writers, the German nationalist poet Guido von List believed it was a uniquely Aryan symbol.

Before the Nazis, the swastika was already in use as a symbol of German völkisch nationalist movements Völkische Bewegung.

The first time the swastika was used with an "Aryan" meaning was on 25 December , when the self-named Order of the New Templars , a secret society founded by Lanz von Liebenfels , hoisted at Werfenstein Castle de Austria a yellow flag with a swastika and four fleurs-de-lys.

An adaption of the NSDAP flag — with the swastika slightly offset from center — was adopted as the sole national flag of Germany on 15 September The swastika was used for badges and flags throughout Nazi Germany , particularly for government and military organizations, but also for "popular" organizations such as the Reichsbund Deutsche Jägerschaft German Hunting Society.

Ralf Stelter notes that the swastika flag used on land had a right-facing swastika on both sides, while the ensign naval flag had it printed through so that a left-facing swastika would be seen when looking at the ensign with the flagpole to the right.

During World War II it was common to use small swastikas to mark air-to-air victories on the sides of Allied aircraft, and at least one British fighter pilot inscribed a swastika in his logbook for each German plane he shot down.

Because of its use by Nazi Germany, the swastika since the s has been largely associated with Nazism. In the aftermath of World War II it has been considered a symbol of hate in the West, [] or alternatively of white supremacy in many Western countries.

As a result, all of its use, or its use as a Nazi or hate symbol, is prohibited in some countries, including Germany.

Because of the stigma attached to the symbol, many buildings that have used the symbol as decoration have had the symbol removed.

Black case, the highest courts have ruled that the local governments can prohibit the use of swastika along with other symbols such as cross burning, if the intent of the use is to intimidate others.

The German and Austrian postwar criminal code makes the public showing of the Hakenkreuz the swastika , the sig rune , the Celtic cross specifically the variations used by white power activists , the wolfsangel , the odal rune and the Totenkopf skull illegal, except for scholarly reasons and, in the case of the odal rune, as the insignia of the rank of sergeant major, Hauptfeldwebel , [] in the modern German Bundeswehr.

It is also censored from the reprints of s railway timetables published by the Reichsbahn. The eagle remains [ where? The swastikas on Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain temples are exempt, as religious symbols cannot be banned in Germany.

The German fashion company Esprit Holdings was investigated for using traditional British-made folded leather buttons after complaints that they resembled swastikas.

In response, Esprit Holdings destroyed two hundred thousand catalogues. A controversy was stirred by the decision of several police departments to begin inquiries against anti-fascists.

In the Stade police department started an inquiry against anti-fascist youths using a placard depicting a person dumping a swastika into a trashcan.

The placard was displayed in opposition to the campaign of right-wing nationalist parties for local elections.

On Friday, 17 March , a member of the Bundestag , Claudia Roth reported herself to the German police for displaying a crossed-out swastika in multiple demonstrations against Neo-Nazis , and subsequently got the Bundestag to suspend her immunity from prosecution.

She intended to show the absurdity of charging anti-fascists with using fascist symbols: The European Union's Executive Commission proposed a European Union-wide anti-racism law in , but European Union states failed to agree on the balance between prohibiting racism and freedom of expression.

In early , while Germany held the European Union presidency, Berlin proposed that the European Union should follow German Criminal Law and criminalize the denial of the Holocaust and the display of Nazi symbols including the swastika, which is based on the Ban on the Symbols of Unconstitutional Organizations Act.

This led to an opposition campaign by Hindu groups across Europe against a ban on the swastika. They pointed out that the swastika has been around for 5, years as a symbol of peace.

As the public display of Nazi -era German flags or any other flags is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution , which guarantees the right to freedom of speech [] , the Nazi Reichskriegsflagge has also been seen on display at white supremacist "events" within United States borders.

As with many neo-Nazi groups across the world, the swastika was also a part of the American Nazi Party 's flag before its first dissolution in — its "re-use" was initiated by successor organizations in , without the publicity Rockwell's original organization possessed.

The symbol was originally chosen by the initial organization's founder, George L.

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